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This is the grammar handbook we are using in World Lit this year! Click the link above to download a copy at home, or you can view a web version here!
The OHS 10th Grade World Literature
Awesome Writing Handbook
Ms. Spiceland and Ms. B
Section 1: Parts of Things
People like breaking things into parts. It makes life easier.
In order to help you write, I’m going to teach you how to categorize words and how to break sentences into parts. These categories and parts perform different “jobs,” and knowing what words perform what job will help all of your writing work together.
Parts of speech refer to what type of word you are using. There are eight types in English, and they all have a different job. Throughout this packet, I’ll refer to the parts of speech, so that’s the very first thing you should learn. Here’s a chart that explains the different categories and what they mean:
|part of speech||function or “job”||example words||example sentences|
|Verb||action or state||(to) be, have, do, like, work, sing, can, must||I am a teacher. I love to teach.|
|Noun||person, place, thing, or idea||pen, dog, work, music, town, London, teacher, John||This is my dog. He lives in my house. We live in London.|
|Adjective||describes a noun||a/an, the, 2, some, good, big, red, well, interesting||I have two dogs. My dogs are big. I like big dogs.|
|Adverb||describes a verb, adjective or adverb||quickly, silently, well, badly, very, really||My dog eats quickly. When he is very hungry, he eats really quickly.|
|Pronoun||replaces a noun||I, you, he, she, some||Tara is smart. She is also beautiful.|
|Preposition||links a noun to another word||to, at, after, on, but||We went to school on Monday.|
|Conjunction||joins clauses or sentences or words||and, but, when||I like dogs and I like cats. I like cats and dogs. I like dogs but I don’t like cats.|
|Interjection||short exclamation, sometimes inserted into a sentence||oh!, ouch!, hi!, well||Ouch! That hurts! Hi! How are you? Well, I don’t know.|
But why? I always hear you guys saying “Why do we have to know this?” Well, you need to learn parts of speech because it will help you learn everything else! For example, later on I will tell you about how a noun and a verb have to match. If you don’t know what a noun is and what a verb is, how can you make them match?
Multiple parts of speech: Sometimes, the same word can be multiple parts of speech, depending on how it is used in a sentence. For example, I can use “love” as both a noun and a verb:
- I love Taco Bell.
- “love” is the action word of this sentence. It is a verb.
- My love for Taco Bell makes me eat there often.
- “love” is an idea or concept in this sentence. It is a noun.
For another example, I can use the word “wet” as an adjective, a verb, and a noun:
- The ground was wet after the rainstorm.
- “wet” describes the ground. It is an adjective.
- My little brother wet the bed last night.
- “wet” is the action word of the sentence, telling what my brother did. It is a verb.
- My mom told me to come inside out of the wet.
- “wet” is the type of weather outside. It is an idea, making it a noun.
If you want to determine what part of speech a word is, look at the job it is performing in the sentence.
Parts of sentences: In addition to categorizing words into parts of speech, you can break a sentence apart. Old school English classes, like the ones your parents or grandparents took, would have taught you how to diagram sentences. That’s big and complicated and silly, so I won’t bore you with it. Instead, I’ll teach you what the basic parts of a sentence are:
- The subject, which performs the action of the sentence
- The predicate, which is the action of the sentence and the recipient of the action, if any
- The other stuff, which is everything else.
The subject of a sentence is what performs the action. Usually it is a noun, but sometimes the subject can be very long and complicated. Sometimes a sentence will have more than one thing performing the same action. In this case, it is called a compound subject. Here are some examples of simple subjects, compound subjects, and really complicated subjects:
- Alex stole the Hot Cheetos from the vending machine.
- “Alex” is performing the action “stole.” “Alex” is the subject of the sentence.
- Alex and Tyler shared the Cheetos for lunch.
- “Alex” and “Tyler” are both performing the action “share.” They are both the subject, so this sentence has a compound subject.
- The delicious but recently pilfered Cheetos left orange dust on their fingers.
- “The delicious but recently pilfered Cheetos” are performing the action “left.” “Cheetos” is the subject of the sentence.
The predicate of a sentence is the action that the subject performs. The simplest form of a predicate is a single verb, but the predicate can include objects too. An object is something that receives the action of the verb. Here are some examples predicates:
- I ran.
- “Ran” is the action of the sentence. It is a very simple predicate.
- Ms. B confiscated the phone.
- “Confiscated” is the action of the sentence. It is the verb. “The phone” receives the action of the sentence. It is an object.
- Ms. Spiceland gave me the book.
- “Gave” is the action of the sentence. It is the verb. “Me” and “the book” both receive the action of the book – “me” receives it indirectly, and “book” receives it directly. “Me” and “the book” are both objects.
The other stuff is everything else in a sentence. Any words or phrases that are not part of the subject or the predicate are other stuff. You could cross all of this stuff out and still have a perfectly good sentence. Here is an example sentence with lots of other stuff:
- The very intelligent but lazy student Carlos, who was in Ms. Spiceland’s fourth block class in Fall 2012, wrote a poem about refrigerators, which can be read on Ms. Spiceland’s blog to this day.
- If you took everything out of that sentence except “Carlos wrote a poem,” you would still have a complete sentence. “Carlos” is the subject and “wrote a poem” is the predicate. “Wrote” is the action and “a poem” is an object.
***EVERY SENTENCE IN THE WHOLE WORLD HAS A SUBJECT AND A VERB AT THE BARE MINIMUM. IF A SENTENCE DOES NOT HAVE A SUBJECT AND A VERB, IT IS NOT A COMPLETE SENTENCE.***
Parts of Things Checklist!
Go through your essay carefully using a blue crayon, marker, pencil, or pen. If you find any errors, correct those in blue before turning your essay in, and you will not lose any points for them.
¨ Circle the subject of every sentence.
¨ Circle the verb in every sentence.
- If you find a sentence without a subject or a verb, rewrite the sentence to correct it! You can do this in the margins of your paper and circle it in blue.
¨ Draw an arrow from the verb to its subject that connects them in every sentence.
¨ Make an underline beneath any objects that belong to your verbs.
¨ Draw an arrow from the objects to the verbs that they go with.
Section 2: Agreement
If no one agrees with anyone else on what’s correct, how will we ever get anything done?
When you are writing, it is important to make sure that all your words agree with each other. When I say “agree,” here’s what I mean:
- All your verbs must match in tense.
- Pronouns and antecedents must match in number, case, and gender.
- You must conjugate your verbs to match your subject.
- Adjectives modify nouns; adverbs modify everything else.
1. Tense refers to past, present, or future. Most of the time, you will write your essay in past tense. When you are writing in past tense, all your verbs should be in past tense throughout your essay. Here are examples of the three main tenses:
- Past tense: The book was wonderful, filled with beautiful metaphors and rich imagery.
- This implies that it happened in the past. While you were reading the story earlier, you thought it was great.
- Present tense: The story jumps off the page and into my brain.
- This implies that it is happening right now. You are currently reading the story, and it is jumping into your head.
- Future tense:I will recommend this book to everyone!
- This implies that it is happening in the future. You have not recommended the book yet, but sometime later on, you definitely will.
The Most Common Mistake is switching from past to present tense in your essay. You might write “The book was excellent, especially the part when Jim runs from the dinosaur.” That’s BAD. Instead, you should say “The book was excellent, especially the part when Jim ran from the dinosaur.”
2. Number means that a word changes depending on how many things it refers to. Pronouns have to change for number. They will have one form for singular, when they refer to one thing, and another form for plural, when they refer to more than one.
- Singular: Ms. Spiceland is an excellent teacher. She teaches at Osborne High School.
- The pronoun “she” refers to one person, Ms. Spiceland. It is a singular pronoun.
- Plural: Ms. B and Ms. Spiceland teach together. They are the best pair of teachers ever.
- The pronoun “they” refers to more than one person, both Ms. B and Ms. Spiceland. It is a plural pronoun.
The Most Common Mistake happens when you use a plural pronoun for a singular word. This happens when you use a word that represents a whole group of things. You might write “The class is awesome. They rock!” That’s BAD. “Class” is a singular noun, even though it represents a group of things. Instead, you should say “The class is awesome. It rocks!”
- Check yourself: Do you use a singular verb form? If so, your pronouns should also be singular. You wouldn’t say “The class are awesome,” would you?
Case refers to how the pronoun is being used in a sentence. Pronouns can be subjects, objects, possessives, or reflexive/intensive, depending on how they are used. Here is a chart with all of the pronouns, their cases and how they might be used:
|Subject||Object||Possessive||Possessive Stand Alone||Reflexive or Intensive|
|_____ saw the cats.||The cats saw _____.||_____ snack was good.||The snack is ______!||(self/selves)|
|Third Person (masculine)||
You / You all*
You / You all*
*“Y’all” is an acceptable plural form of “you,” as it is a contraction of “you all.” However, bear in mind that contractions of any kind should never be used in formal (essay) writing.
The Most Common Mistake is saying “hisself” instead of “himself” or “theyselves” and “theirselves” instead of “themselves.” Watch out for those!
- Check yourself: See the bold sentences in the pronoun chart above? If you’re not sure about a pronoun, choose the sentence on the chart that’s most like the sentence in your essay, then look at the column beneath it. Is your pronoun there? Good! If not, you’re using the wrong one!
Gender refers to male, female, or neutral. The gender of a pronoun should always match the gender of the word it replaces.
- Male: Mr. Brooks teaches American Lit. He may teach you next year.
- Female: Ms. Gelston also teaches American Lit. You may have her class instead.
- Neutral: Either way, you will take American Lit. It is a fun class!
The Most Common Mistake is using “they” when the gender of a noun is unknown or when it could be either male or female. You might write, “Every student has to pass their American Lit class to graduate.” That’s BAD. Instead, write, “Every student has to pass his or her American Lit class to graduate.”
- Check yourself: Remember that “they” is a plural pronoun. Every time you use “they” in your essay, check and make sure it replaces more than one word or a plural word.
3. Conjugate your verbs to match your subjectsmeans you have to change the verb depending on who is doing the action. In English, this is pretty easy. Usually, if your subject is in third person singular, you add an “s” to the end of the verb. That’s it! Here is a chart, if you’re that kind of person:
|Example: “to run”||Singular||Plural|
|First person||I run||We run|
|Second person||You run||Y’all run|
|Third person||He/she/it runs||They run|
The Most Common Mistakeis just forgetting to do this step entirely! You might write, “He run down the street.” That’s BAD. Instead, say, “He runs down the street.”
4. Adjectives and Adverbs need to modify the correct words. An adjectivecan only modify a noun. An adverb can modify an adjective, verb, or another adverb. Here are some examples:
- The big dog ran down the street.
- “big” is an adjective, and it modifies the noun “dog.”
- The extremely big dog ran down the street.
- “extremely” is an adverb, and it modifies the adjective “big.”
- The big dog quickly ran down the street.
- “quickly” is an adverb, and it modifies the verb “ran.”
- The dog ran most quickly down the street.
- “most” is an adverb modifying the other adverb “quickly.”
The Most Common Mistakeis using an adjective to modify a verb. You might write, “He ran fast to escape that dinosaur.” That’s BAD. Instead, write, “He ran quickly to escape that dinosaur.”
- Check yourself:Draw an arrow from the adjective or adverb that points to the word it describes. What part of speech is that word? If it is anything other than a noun, you must use an adverb.
- Check yourself: Usually, adverbs end in “-ly.” The adjective “quick” because the adverb “quickly.”
Carefully go through your essay using a pink or red pen, crayon, pencil, or marker. If you find any mistakes, correct them now in red, and you won’t lose points on your essay.
¨ Your essay should be written in past tense. Go through every verb in your essay (they should be circled in blue) and label it:
- Put a “P” next to all past tense verbs.
- Put a “N” next to all present tense verbs.
- Put a “F” next to all future tense verbs.
¨ If you have any Ns or Fs, change those verbs to past tense.
¨ Go through your essay and circle all the pronouns.
¨ Draw an arrow from every pronoun to the word or words it replaces.
¨ Make sure all the pronouns agree with the words they replace in number.
¨ Make sure all the pronouns agree with the worse they replace in case.
¨ Make sure all the pronouns agree with the words they replace in gender.
¨ Make sure you do not use “they” when you should use “he or she”!
¨ Look at all of your verbs and their subjects – they should be circled in blue and connected by arrows. Do they match?
¨ Underline all of your adjectives.
¨ Draw an arrow from your adjectives to the words they modify.
¨ If you find an adjective that modifies ANYTHING other than a noun, change that adjective to an adverb!
Connect, cut, and clarify!
What would you do if I told you to punctuate the following words: “Woman without her man is nothing” Would you say “Woman, without her man, is nothing”? Or would you say “Woman: without her, man is nothing”? Punctuation makes a difference! Here is a chart of all the punctuation you will see in English and how it is used:
|full stop or period||End a sentence.||I like English.|
|comma||Separate things: Items in a list, clauses and phrases in a sentence, and dialogue from non-dialogue.||I speak English, French and Thai.|
|semi-colon||Connect two closely related sentences, making them into one longer sentence.||I don’t often go swimming; I prefer to play tennis.|
|colon||Indicate the beginning of a list||You have two choices: finish the work today or lose the contract.|
|hyphen||Connect two or more words together to use them as one word||This is a rather out-of-date book.|
|dash||Set off an appositive or extra explanatory phrase. Not used in formal writing.||In each town—London, Paris and Rome—we stayed in youth hostels.|
|question mark||Indicate a question.||Where is Shangri-La?|
|exclamation point||Show excitement. Not used in formal writing.||“Help!” she cried. “I’m drowning!”|
|slash, forward slash or oblique||Show two names for one thing, sort of as a replacement for “or”. Not used in formal writing.
Indicate a line break in quoted lines of poetry. Used in formal writing.
|Please press your browser’s Refresh/Reload button.
“Roses are red, / Violets are blue / Monkeys are smelly, / Cows are too.”
|backslash||Separate parts of a filename on a computer. Not used in formal writing.||C:\Users\Files\jse.doc|
|double quotation marks||Enclose dialogue or quotes.||“I love you,” she said.|
|single quotation marks||Enclose dialogue-within-dialogue or dialogue within a quote.||“I asked her what was wrong, and she said, ‘Go away!’ so I did,” he said.|
|apostrophe||Make a contraction of two words. Not used in formal writing
Show possession. Used in formal writing.
|I can’t do it.
This is John’s car.
|parentheses||Include clarifying information that is not necessary to the sentence.
Cite a source of a quotation.
|I went to Bangkok (my favorite city) and stayed there for two weeks.
“Quote” (Author 15).
|square brackets||Indicate that a quote has been changed for clarity.||“When I found out [the book] was stolen, I was angry.”|
|…||ellipsis mark||Indicate that part of a quote has been removed. Usually should be enclosed in square brackets.||“She leapt […] and landed in the water”|
Carefully read through your essay with a green pen, pencil, crayon, or marker. If you find any errors, correct them now and you will not lose points when you turn your essay in.
¨ Go through your essay and look for and dashes. If you find any, replace them with commas or parentheses.
¨ Go through your essay and look for exclamation points. If you find any, replace them with a period. Formal writing is not exciting.
¨ Go through your essay and look for forward slashes. If you find any that are not part of quoted poetry, replace them with the word “or.”
¨ Go through your writing and look for any backslashes. There is no reason to use a backslash, so figure out what mark you were trying to use and replace the backslash with that.
¨ Go through your essay and look for apostrophes. If you use any apostrophes in contractions, write out both words instead. Apostrophes that indicate possession can stay.
¨ Circle (in green) all of the commas in your essay.
¨ Make sure your commas do one of the following things:
- Separate multiple items in a list
- Separate a dependent clause from an independent clause
- Indicate the start of a quote when you use a “somebody said” lead-in
¨ If you find any commas in the middle of a sentence, use your finger to cover half of the sentence and read the other half alone.
- If both halves can stand by themselves as sentences and still make sense, you have a comma splice! Replace the comma with a semi-colon.
- If one half of the sentence makes no sense, your comma is correct. Do not change it.
¨ If you used any other punctuation in your essay, underline it in green. Consult the chart on the previous page to make sure you used it correctly.
There’s a time and place for all kinds of writing. Now is the time for formal writing!
In English classes, we write in something called MLA Format. MLA stands for “Modern Language Association,” and all it does is define a specific set of rules for writing so that every student’s writing looks the same. There are three main parts to writing in formal MLA format.
- Using formal language
- Properly formatting your text
- Using correct citations
1. Formal language means writing using only standard English, and avoiding anything that’s even kinda-sorta close to slang or colloquialisms. Colloquialism is a fancy word for slang. Here is what you avoid in formal writing:
- First and second person: Your essay must be written in third person only. Any use of first or second person is considered informal. You should never talk to your reader and you should never talk about yourself.
- To remove first and second person, you must remove all of the following words: I, me, my, mine, myself, you, your, yours, yourself, we, us, our, ours, ourselves, and yourselves.
- Contractions: You may never combine two words in a contraction in formal writing. Write out both words even if it sounds stupid. This is really a good thing, because it increases your word count.
- Here are some contractions that must be written out (and their long form): can’t (cannot), don’t (do not), won’t (will not), shouldn’t (should not), couldn’t (could not), doesn’t (does not), hasn’t (has not), it’s (it is), aren’t (are not), ain’t (just avoid that one entirely), etc.
- Slang: You have to avoid all forms of slang unless absolutely necessary. If you are talking about a girlfriend, say “girlfriend” and not “boo.” If you are talking about an unmarried father of a woman’s child, say “the child’s father” instead of “baby daddy.” Say “child” instead of “kid” or “young’un.” Say “friend” instead of “bud,” “pal,” or “partner.” You get the idea.
- If you absolutely must use slang, explain the term you are using and put it in quotation marks the first time you say it. For example, if you are writing about the dress code, you might say this: Many boys wear their pants well below their waist, which is called “sagging.” Sagging is a common fashion among teenagers.
- Shorthand: Never abbreviate anything in a formal essay. Write out all words such as you, your, because, without, and so on. This is really a good thing, because it makes your essay longer.
2. Properly formatted text: Your essay needs to meet all of the following criteria:
- 12-point Times New Roman
- Double spaced, with no extra space between paragraphs.
- One-inch margins on all sides, with paragraphs should be indented one-half inch.
- Your first page should have an MLA heading in the top left corner. An MLA heading has your name, your teacher’s name, the name of your class, and the date.
- Underneath the MLA heading you should put the title of your paper. Center it, and do not do any other formatting. No bold, no italics, no underline, no big size, nothing.
- Your last name and page numbers in the upper right corner of every page, in the header of the document.
An example of proper MLA format is on the next page.
Title of Essay
This is an example of how the text of your formal essay will look. It is written in size twelve Times New Roman. The double spacing is somewhat cool because it essentially makes your paper twice as long. Yay, extra length! This section also has the correct one-inch margins and half-inch indent, which I didn’t do on the rest of this handbook because it takes up extra paper.
Even though writing in MLA format seems somewhat boring, there is a good reason for it. MLA format exists so that when your teacher grades all your papers, they all look the same. That makes it very hard for a teacher to play favorites based on whose essay looks prettiest. I’m not grading your ability to look pretty; I’m grading your writing! It also makes absolutely certain that I can read your essay, and you didn’t accidentally use a font that is hard to read when printed out or something silly like that.
The only other aspect of formal writing is using proper citations. We will have to go into more detail on that in class, because it is big and complicated. But the short version is you need to make sure you have a works cited page for any text you quote, and you need to have parenthetical citations after every quote. I’m running out of room on this page, so I’m going to end this here. I hope you all have enjoyed this example!
3. Using Correct Citations means you use proper MLA format to show where you got the information that you have quoted in your paper. There are two parts to proper citations: parenthetical citations (also called in-text citations) and a works cited page.
Parenthetical citations come directly after your quote in your paper. All you do is put the author’s last name (the one who wrote the quote, not yours) and the page number where you found the quote in parentheses. It looks like this:
“Quote quote blah blah blah this is a quote” (Author 15).
So, if you quote something from page 101 of The House of the Scorpion, it will look like this:
“The salon was deathly still” (Farmer 101).
The works cited page is a little more complicated. It comes at the very end of your essay and contains all the information about the book where you found your quotes. This way, if I need to figure out where one of your quotes came from, I can go find the exact same edition and copy of the book you used to write your paper, and make sure your quotes are correct.
We will use EasyBib.com and CitationMachine.net in class to make our works cited pages.
Formal Writing Checklist
Carefully read through your paper with a yellow or orange pen, pencil, marker, or crayon. If you find any errors, correct them before you turn your essay in and you won’t lose points.
¨ Read through your paper for first and second person. If you find any of the following words, rewrite the sentence to remove them:
- I, me, my, mine, myself, you, your, yours, yourself, we, us, our, ours, ourselves, or yourself.
¨ Read through your paper for contractions. Remove them!
¨ Read through your paper for slang and shorthand. Replace it with a more formal or complete word!
¨ Is your paper written in 12-point Times New Roman?
¨ Is your paper double-spaced with no extra space between paragraphs?
¨ Does your paper have one-inch margins all around, with paragraphs indented one-half inch?
¨ Do you have a correct MLA heading?
¨ Is your last name and page number in the upper right corner of every page?
¨ Does your essay have a title?
¨ Does every quote have a parenthetical citation after it?
¨ Do you have a correct works cited page?
Silly Mistakes Checklist
Read through your paper using a black pen, pencil, marker, or crayon. If you find any of the following errors, correct them before turning your essay in and you won’t lose points.
¨ Typos! Make sure you don’t have any silly errors like writing “teh” instead of “the” or “pwn” instead of “own.”
¨ Affect and Effect – Affect is a verb. Effect is a noun. Affect means “to change” and effect means “a change.”
¨ There, their, and they’re – “there” tells a location, as in “over there.” “Their” shows possession, as in, “That is their binder.” “They’re” is a contraction of “they are” and should be written out completely.
¨ Two, too, and to – “Two” is a number, 2. “Too” means “also.” “To” is everything else.
¨ Lay and lie – “Lay” is done by one person to something else, as in, “The chicken lays eggs.” Lie is done by someone to themselves, as in “I lie down in the sofa at home.” I remember it by thinking “A comes before I in the alphabet, so you have to lay something down before you can lie on it.”
¨ Who and whom – “Who” is the subject pronoun. Usually it starts a sentence. “Whom” is the object pronoun, and usually follows a preposition. I remember it because of the Metallica song “For Whom the Bell Tolls.”
¨ Spell out all numbers from one to one hundred. In other words, write “fourteen,” not “14.”
¨ Capitalize the first word of a sentence.
¨ Capitalize a proper noun, such as a name.
Quick Reference Guide
Section 1: Parts of things
The first section of this handbook defines the various parts of speech (verb, noun, adjective, adverb, pronoun, preposition, conjunction, and interjection) and the basic parts of a sentence (subject and predicate). The blue section doesn’t cover many errors; it mostly asks you to identify things so that you can solve problems later on. The only error covered is writing sentences that are missing subjects or verbs. The sentence fragment.
Section 2: Agreement
The second section of this book, the pink section, covers agreement, and is where you will find most of your common errors. First, this section covered how to make sure your entire essay was written in the correct tense, and you don’t switch tense in the middle of a sentence – in other words, you wrote correctly and speak clearly. Also, when a student has errors in him or mine pronouns and theyselves don’t know how to make its match, this is the section for his or hers. If you struggles with your verb match your subject, you should looks here. Final, this section explains how you make your awesomely adjectives match easy with your nouns and your adverbs match easy with other stuff.
Section 3: Punctuation
This section covers what to do if you struggle with punctuation Sometimes you will forget to write in a punctuation – mark or use it incorrectly. The green (section) also covers/explains things that are not used in formal writing! And it’s explanation of [mostly] the marks you will use can serve: as a quick reference guide; if you are not-sure what to use or why? I even cover some\weird marks that you will…or have… seen before.
Section 4: Formal Writing
Oh hey, yo dawg, I heard you like writin essays, so I put an essay in your essay handbook so you can write while you write. Amirite?! Dis section covers how you wanna write in an essay, so I put a section in about how to format your stuff in MLA. This section also covers y u should not use slang and abbreviations and also how to do parenthetical citations (Spiceland 13).
Section 5: Silly Mistakes
Tihs section covers all teh silly mistakes that sometimes effect students. Their are a number of mist aches that students often make, two. but rather than lie down the law, for who this might effect, I thought i would show you examples of the 8 most common mistakes that ms burroughs and i have seen on essays, and maybe this will help you avoid them.
Practice makes perfect!
The following paragraphs demonstrate all the mistakes I have discussed so far in this book. As we learn about the various sections of the book together, we will correct this page together, for practice. Yay, practice!
The first section of this handbook defines the various parts of speech (verb, noun, adjective, adverb, pronoun, preposition, conjunction, and interjection) and the basic parts of a sentence (subject and predicate). The blue section doesn’t cover many errors; it mostly asks you to identify things so that you can solve problems later on. The only error covered is writing sentences that are missing subjects or verbs. The sentence fragment. The second section of this book, the pink section, covers agreement, and is where you will find most of your common errors. First, this section covered how to make sure your entire essay was written in the correct tense, and you don’t switch tense in the middle of a sentence – in other words, you wrote correctly and speak clearly. Also, when a student has errors in him or mine pronouns and theyselves don’t know how to make its match, this is the section for his or hers. If you struggles with your verb match your subject, you should looks here. Final, this section explains how you make your awesomely adjectives match easy with your nouns and your adverbs match easy with other stuff.
This section covers what to do if you struggle with punctuation Sometimes you will forget to write in a punctuation – mark or use it incorrectly. The green (section) also covers/explains things that are not used in formal writing! And it’s explanation of [mostly] the marks you will use can serve: as a quick reference guide; if you are not-sure what to use or why? I even cover some\weird marks that you will…or have… seen before. Oh hey, yo dawg, I heard you like writin essays, so I put an essay in your essay handbook so you can write while you write. Amirite?! Dis section covers how you wanna write in an essay, so I put a section in about how to format your stuff in MLA. This section also covers y u should not use slang and abbreviations and also how to do parenthetical citations (Spiceland 13). Tihs section covers all teh silly mistakes that sometimes effect students. Their are a number of mist aches that students often make, two. but rather than lie down the law, for who this might effect, I thought i would show you examples of the 8 most common mistakes that ms burroughs and i have seen on essays, and maybe this will help you avoid them.
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